A NEPAD conference in Nigeria focuses on this debate in June 2006. Food aid is another contentious issue: it saves lives and can improve livelihoods if it sources food locally and is well-targeted and reliable. Critics argue, however, that long-term reliance on food aid distorts local economies and creates dependency. Systems to predict food shortages also need reviewing: early warning systems are of limited use without an effective response from policymakers. How will the CAADP work when other initiatives have failed in the past?